What is Occupational Therapy?
Occupation therapy is a therapeutic approach that plays a vital role in helping people overcome the effects of disability caused by illness or accident, to carry out everyday tasks or occupations to the full potential. It focuses on daily activities and tasks that matters the most to the patient and pushes them to be as independent as possible to enhance their health and well-being.
Occupational therapists work with adults and children of all ages with a wide range of conditions; most commonly those who have difficulties due to a mental health illness, physical or learning disabilities.
Occupational Therapy role in dyslexia
Occupational Therapy approach can be very effective in dealing with dyslexia as it addresses key components of skills such as oculomotor function or visual efficiency, executive functioning, and motor coordination. An occupational therapist, after proper evaluation of the dyslexic student and his/her ailment, will prepare a customized intervention to improve the person’s ability to help them continue with life skills, work and leisure activities as independently as possible.
This information helps identify the individual’s strengths, weaknesses and list of priorities regarding the person’s various activities. Final outcome evaluation is done to ensure the goals are met and if changes are required in the intervention. Intervention, in the case, will cater to all of the student’s needs – physical, psychological, social and environmental.
Such an approach imparts optimism and gives the child a sense of new paths opening up in the future. An Occupational Therapy specialist,however, must fully aware themselves with the characteristics of dyslexia before hand. Strategies will work out the best if prepared while considering special needs of dyslexic child.
Occupational Therapy interventions for Dyslexia
4. Handwriting Skills Development
In general cases of dyslexia and other learning disabilities, An occupational therapist will most likely work on improving the handwriting skills of the child. The exercises involved will be focused on helping child attain a mature pencil grip. Hand strength, movement and other related motor control functions involved in writing are addressed. The therapist may introduce activities for stronger and steadier shoulder and arm muscles; a requirement for good control over pencil for writing. The exercises also involve teaching how to maintain a good sitting posture for effective results. An occupation therapist will address visual perceptional skills of the child to evaluate his/her ability to form letter and shapes. Specialist may collaborate with teachers for developing special handwriting curriculum for the child.
3. Organisational Skills Development
Apart from the general idea of dyslexia being a learning and reading disorder, there are several other areas where its effects can be observed. Lack of proper organisation skills being one of them. A plan needs to be workout by occupational therapist for building this skillset. General exercises involved are :
- Teaching how to think in reverse to find a solution to a task.
- Breaking a large task into smaller ones. Not only it becomes more manageable, it also reduces anxiety.
- Teaching how to prepare physically and mentally for a task in advance. A visual time table for the week is perfect for planning ahead. Planning early reduces anxiety and last moment time pressure and helps in achieving better results in task.
- Using visual cues for recalling work to be done. ‘To-Do’ lists are helpful in keeping track.
2. Visual Perception Skills Development
Visual perceptual skill refers to the brain’s ability to extract, process and organize information of what we see and making sense out of it. It lays the foundation of how a child learns to interact with environment. It helps in recognizing numbers, letters, shapes, and symbols and is required in performing several classroom tasks, such as reading, copying information and matching shapes. An occupational therapist will do an individual assessment of the dyslexic child lacking visual perceptual skills to prepare an effective strategy. The specialist will address the following components of the visual perception
- Visual discrimination to improve child’s ability to classify objects based on color, forms, shapes, and other attributes.
- Visual memory to improve the ability to recall information, such as shapes, patterns, sequence of events once it has been removed from sight.
- Spatial awareness to teach how an object is placed in relation to oneself in space. Dyslexic students with poor visual perceptional skills often observed making clumsy movements and often bumping into things.
- Eye-Hand coordination which is a vital skill requirement for reading and handwriting. The eyes need to guide the hand in drawing straight and curved lines precisely within a visual boundary. Without proper eye-hand coordination, students struggle to keep the track of where were they reading, writing or copying from the board.
1. Self Regulation
There are high chances that learning disability,such as dyslexia tends to convert a child into a passive learner. They have to rely on assistance of others to successfully complete a task. The subject fails to evaluate and monitor his/her own learning. This ultimately affects child’s ability to understand one’s knowledge and thought process, monitoring a task, error or failure detection.
This is where the concept of self regulation becomes important in the life of a child with learning disorder. An occupational therapist will take a cognitive behavioral approach to address this issue. The goal is to teach how to keep their body feeling “just right” so that they are able to attend and focus during learning tasks.