Cuisenaire Rods are a manipulative teaching tool used in classrooms around the world. The kit consists of square pieces of different colors and lengths that students use to learn math facts, addition, subtraction multiplication tables, geometry, and English.

Not only in multiple subjects but these manipulatives can be employed in multiple ways for the same concept as well. The list of activities that we have crafted lets you make out the best of these rods. Touching unique subjects and concepts, we ensure to create good learning sessions.

**Employing cuisenaire rods- Why is it often effortless?**

Cuisenaire Rods are of multiple colors. Playing with these rods and doing fun activities enhance the interest in a particular subject. Here are a few reasons why they can be an eminent choice for learning:

**Children like Colors**

Children love playing with the colors. **Chris Boyatzis ^{[1]} **did research on students aged 5-6 years to study how their emotions are related to the colors. Multiple questions were asked to them regarding their favorite colors and then were asked to arrange them in multiple orders. The results highlighted that they are sensitive and emotional towards colors and related activities.

**Proven from Fraction learning**

In independent research^{[2]} by Chris Hani West District, South Africa, it was concluded that Cuisenaire rods have an impact on concepts like fractions letting them perform academically better. These are often foundations for special learners as well which lets to come up with unique proportion ideas of math concepts.

**Enhances the spatial abilities**

Dealing with 3D objects like rods and orienting them specifically to learn a concept can stipulate spatial abilities in the child. Standing it, placing it parallel to the floor, all of these views let the little one get a better locational idea.

**Activities with Cuisenaire rods- Crafted campaigns for little ones!**

**1. Modeling cuisenaire fractions **

To start with, one may need to procure multiple Cuisenaire rods of similar and varying lengths.

- The teacher asks the student to demonstrate a fraction to the student. Say, the fraction is ½.
- Now, take one long rod and then two small rods that are half the size of the previous one
- Place two small rods on the big one to first show 2/2 or 1
- They remove one rod from the above structure, to show ½ with a small rod on the bigger one.

Starting with the smaller ones, the instructor can gradually increase the complexity to ensure they learn appropriately. This activity ensures a visual demonstration of the fractions, to make comprehension easier.

**2. Coordinates cuisenaire **

We need various Cuisenaire rods of different sizes and graph paper of unit 1 centimeter to design the coordinate systems.

- Design a shape on the graph sheet with the help of smaller Cuisenaire rods.(This is going to be the same as making Lego Toys.)
- After placing the respective Cuisenaire rods, assign coordinates to each rod. Note all the coordinates of the lower-left position for each rod.
- This coordinate system will serve as a map of the design. Once you have noted down the coordinates, disassemble the Cuisenaire rods.
- Call the student and let them note the coordinates. Now ask them to place the Cuisenaire rods according to these references.

This activity can help the child to deal better with the coordinate systems in a plane.

**3. Bar graphs **

Bar graphs are an interesting way of presenting multiple statistics on paper. Thereby, this can make up an interesting activity to present values.

- To start with, the child needs to list out the scores of the past 10 tests
- Now, they procure a graph sheet and draw the x and y coordinate plane
- The pupil adds scores of each subject using these rods
- If the score of math is 8/10, then then they can use a rod of 8 cm in length
- Once all the scores are mentioned, the teacher evaluates if the final presentation is true or not.

If the scores are out of 100 or 50, then students may need to create reading on plane accordingly to make it feasible. The same idea can be used for presenting other data like attendance and votes also.

**4. Cuisenaire multiplicative growth**

Graph paper and Cuisenaire rods are required materials for the demonstration of this activity.

- On the centimeter graph sheet, create a stairway design from the shortest to the longest rod. The pattern should be discussed earlier if needed. Also, note the value of the length that each step makes.

- Then, using the same rods as the previous step, double the length of each step on the staircase.
- Create this on graph paper, color it, and then label it with the values listed above. This way, the change in the value can be easily compared.

This project teaches the youngster about growth through multiplication. For instance, a length of 4 units is converted to 8 now. Kids can see how multiplication with 2 works on the sheet to apply it anywhere later.

**5. Cuisenaire storytelling**

**Cuisenaire Rods **can be used in many aspects. One of them is storytelling. Accordingly, this activity needs Cuisenaire Rods & Worksheet.

- Tell your students a children’s story like ‘The Little Red Riding Hood’.
- Ask them to use rods of different lengths to use as characters for retelling
- Give the dialogue cards from Worksheet to four different pairs of Students in the class and ask them to look over the words.
- Now, they can put these rods in place on every scene to retell it

Students can also use four rods to make a square representing the story’s hut. Also, represent the characters with the help of different rods of different ages. (like a small rod for kids). As you arrange the rods on the table, try to elicit from the students what they think the rods represent. Engage children to tell the story in a dialogue format with the help of representation by Cuisenaire rods. This helps the child to develop better storytelling techniques.

**6. Cuisenaire operations **

One of the basic usages of Cuisenaire rods is to teach the kids the basic multiplications and division. All we need is various Cuisenaire rods of multiple lengths.

- To perform multiplication, one can take multiple rods and place them in the train before they count.
- For instance, id 5*2 is to be calculated, a 5 cm rod can be used twice to determine the answer (10)
- Division can also be a quality visually engaging process. The child may need multiple blocks to perform the operation.
- Say, they need to calculate 6 divided by 2, then they can first take a rod of 6 cm long. Since it is divided into 2 parts, two rods of half the length are taken and placed below it Now, they can make out the answer from the length of one small rod- 3.

**7. Cuisenaire geometry**

These rods are not only useful for arithmetics only but also help in understanding the simple geometry, Since the face of the white rod has an area of one square centimeter, the rods are ideal for finding the area in square centimeters. The volume of the white rod is one cubic centimeter.

- To start with, the Teacher may start by asking a question to find the area of a square. Say the question is “What is the area of the square of the side length of 4 cms”
- Students can take unit rods and place them to form a square of 4 cms on one side
- Now, they count the number of units to find the area effortlessly.

Long rods can be employed to find areas of other shapes like rectangles. As rods are 3D objects, they can be used to find volume as well in higher grades.

**8. Cuisenaire prime **

Learning the factors (Composite & Prime Numbers) becomes easy when you have learned multiplications and division through Cuisenaire rods. All you need is Cuisenaire Rods.

- To start with, the teacher gives one number to the student. Say the number is 10.
- Now, the child takes a rod that is 10 cm in length. This is the base bar
- Now, they consider multiple smaller rods to see if any number of them can match this length.
- They can consider two rods 5 cm long, 5 rods 2 cm long, and 10 rods of 1cms long.
- Since multiple sizes are discerned here, the number is composite. If only 1 cm rods can be placed then the number is considered prime.

This activity visualizes the concept of prime and composite numbers for the learners to discern easily.

**9. Cusionarie sentences**

It can be a useful tool for ESL students to understand sentence formation better. Before starting the activity, teachers need to take a marker and write words on Cuisenaire rods. Say, “**is” **is written on smaller rods, and “**forgotten” **is written on longer rods.

- A pile of rods with words on them is piled up before the learner
- The teacher now starts the timer at 10 minutes.
- In this span, the child needs to form 5 sentences out of these within this interval.

This activity is a good option for learning English and vocabulary. Later teacher can make it complicated by asking the learners to create particular sentences like interrogative.

**10. Area models**

Work with a partner to complete the Area Model for Multiplication. Each participant works with a different 10×10 grid of centimeter paper. They need to have a number of rods enough to fill the paper along with a couple of dice.

- To start, one player takes two dice and rolls them. The number that comes on the first one is the length of the rod that they need to take. And the number that comes on the second one is the number of rods that the player needs to take. Say, if it is 3 and 5, then the player picks a rod of 3 cm length and the student needs to pick 5 rods.
- Now, this player can place these rods anywhere on the graph sheet.
- The second player takes turns and picks rods according to the numbers of the dice.
- This process is repeated until the graph paper is filled and there is no space to fit in it.

The one with lesser gaps in the sheet is the winner. This activity lets the little ones know how the concept of the area works. Also, they understand how multiple shapes need to be perfectly arranged to fit better in place.

**Winding-up**

The Cuisenaire rods help in understanding the basic operations of math and are easy to use. The most important use of this tool is as a way to teach children about measurement and units. This can be done by using the rods to represent different quantities of inches, feet, yards, miles, etc. Cuisenaire rods also serve as a fun way to practice math concepts like multiplication and division. Although I am tempted to use these manipulatives to learn, check out the activities stated above to see which of these works for you, even with some minor changes.

**References:**

- Boyatzis, C. J., & Varghese, R. (1994). Children’s emotional associations with colors.
*The Journal of genetic psychology*,*155*(1), 77-85. - Adom, G., & Adu, E. O. The use of Cuisenaire Rods on Learners’ Performance in Fractions in Grade 9 in Public High Schools in Chris Hani West District, South Africa.