Printable Reading Fluency Checklist [PDF Included]

Reading is a vital skill that is required throughout life. It is necessary to gather knowledge to make sense of written texts. When kids are young, they start by learning to read, which gradually turns into reading to learn as they grow older. One of the key requirements to attain this shift is to be able to read fluently. 

To help young readers determine where they stand on the fluency scale and assess their reading fluency progress, teachers and parents can introduce them to reading fluency checklists. It can help them improve reading fluency at home and in a school setting. Tools like these provide a road map for improvement by pinpointing areas where readers need more practice. This, eventually, helps them improve their reading skills and become successful readers.

In this write-up, we talk about the true meaning of reading fluency and its importance before we provide you with the checklist and tell you how it can be helpful for students.

What is reading fluency?

Reading fluency is a person’s ability to read a text quickly and accurately. It also involves reading with the right expression. When kids are not very fluent, their reading may seem disjointed as they focus on decoding individual words, rather than fluidly processing text in meaningful phrases, as is typical in spoken language. But with the achievement of the right level of fluency, they read in natural, coherent phrases and add the correct pitch and style while reading.

Students attain fluency when they effectively balance its three main components. These are:

1. Accuracy: 

By accuracy, we mean being able to read words easily and correctly without spending time on decoding. When kids read accurately, they easily identify different words and, therefore, need to put less effort into sounding them out. This enables them to read with precision without struggling with the words in the text.

2. Speed: 

Fluent reading also involves reading at an efficient speed. Let’s say a child reads each word accurately but takes a lot of time reading it out. We won’t call this fluency because there is a lack of speed in reading. For reading to sound fluent, it has to be close to the speed of spoken language.

3. Prosody: 

The last component of reading fluency is prosody. It is the ability to read with expression and not sound like a robot. It includes using the right emotion while reading aloud to match what’s written, emphasizing important words or those written in bold or italics, and taking the right length of pauses in places with a comma or period.

Reading fluency is the right mix of all the above components. Having mastery over just one or two elements is not sufficient to gain fluency. One must be proficient in all three areas to be called a fluent reader.

What are the observable signs of reading fluency difficulties?

A child who is yet to develop reading fluency displays their inability to read and comprehend effectively by saying things like, “This is so hard” or “I don’t like reading.” They are not so inclined to pick up a book and read by themselves, and their frustration is clearly evident whenever they are asked to read. Here are a few signs that can help parents and teachers know that a child needs explicit instruction to improve reading fluency:

  • Doesn’t seem interested in reading.
  • Reading with no expression.
  • Not reading in chunks or phrases.
  • Not pausing at the right places when reading a sentence.
  • Reading very slowly, often taking a lot of time to read a short piece of text.
  • Scoring less than the desired ‘words correct per minute’ in reading assessments.

Why do kids need to develop reading fluency?

Fluency is a connection between automatic word recognition and reading comprehension. When kids learn to read, they need skills like phonics, phonological awareness, and sight word recognition. This is generally achieved through the use of word recognition strategies and different types of games and activities. A strong foundation in these skills allows readers to identify and read words effortlessly. 

Until students develop a strong foothold in these skills, their cognitive space is mostly utilized to break words into smaller chunks and decode them. They have little space and energy left to derive meaning from what they are reading.

But when readers attain mastery of these skills, their minds automatically identify words without the need to put in much effort. This supports the development of fluency as kids learn to read quickly, accurately, and expressively. Ultimately, they are in a better position to comprehend texts in a wide range of subjects, which is the main objective of learning to read.

What should a reading fluency checklist for students consist of?

A fluency checklist is a valuable tool to help students self-assess their reading fluency. When kids read, they are more engaged in identifying and sounding out words. But with a checklist at hand, they get a visual reminder to pay attention to other aspects that can help them read fluently. So, what points should a reading fluency checklist comprise? Let’s take a look.

I. Reading Fluency Checklist for Emerging Readers


  • I read all the words correctly.
  • I do not miss reading words or word endings.
  • I do not add extra words while reading.
  • I correct myself if I make a mistake while reading.


  • I read at a steady and easy-to-understand speed.
  • My reading sounds like I am having a conversation with my friends.


  • I do not sound like a robot when I am reading.
  • I use an appropriate tone to convey the author’s thoughts and ideas.
  • I read smoothly with emotions and feelings.
  • My facial expressions and body language align with the tone and expression of my voice.


  • I take necessary pauses wherever there is a comma or period.
  • I stress important words in the text.
  • I emphasize words marked in bold or italics.
  • I change the tone of my voice when there is an exclamation point or question mark.


  • I group words into phrases.
  • I can read 3 to 5 words together, so it is easy to understand. 


  • When I read, I look forward to learning something new.
  • When I read a sentence, I check to see if I understand its meaning.
  • I can explain what I read after I have finished reading.

How to use a reading fluency checklist?

Using a reading fluency checklist effectively involves a systematic approach to assessing and monitoring a student’s fluency skills. Here are steps to help you use a reading fluency checklist:

  1. Give each student a fluency checklist whenever they have a reading session.
  2. Introduce them to the checklist and explain its purpose. 
  3. Hand over a reading passage to your students. Make sure the text matches the reading competency of your students.
  4. Now, read the text to the class to demonstrate how their reading should sound. Remind them to pay attention to the various attributes of fluent reading.
  5. Next, have the students read the text aloud, either individually in a low voice or in front of the entire class.
  6. After reading, have students document their reading on the checklist.
  7. Talk to every student individually and give feedback. Discuss their areas of strengths and weaknesses, and help them set goals to attain reading fluency.
  8. Provide multiple opportunities to read, and read more!
  9. Reassess student progress through another reading session where students again use the fluency checklist.
  10. Celebrate student achievements and motivate them to put in continuous effort.
  11. Repeat using the fluency checklist at regular intervals to monitor progress and adjust instruction so your students gradually meet their fluency goals.

Final note

A reading fluency checklist is a valuable tool to support students in their journey to attaining reading fluency. It helps students become aware of their shortcomings and take ownership of their reading growth. 

As these checklists break down fluency into key areas like speed, accuracy, and expression, it is easier for students to know which specific areas they need to work more on. Plus, it also helps teachers make informed instructional decisions and allows them to tailor instruction depending on the needs of their students. 

So, the next time you have a reading session, use our free printable reading fluency checklist along with a self-monitoring reading comprehension checklist and see your students take charge of their reading endeavors.

Leave a Comment